An introduction to language

What are some word-formation processes? In what ways does knowing about these processes help you learn and improve your lexical resources?

In linguistics, word-formation processes are the creation of a new word. The processes that are formed frequently or commonly in the use of the English language. Word formation is sometimes contrasted with semantic change, which is a change in a single word's meaning. There are some kinds of word-formation processes, such as derivation, compounding, conversion, blending, clipping, back-formation, acronym, initialism, borrowing. To know how words are created helps us to extend their vocabulary and guess the word’s meaning, the word’s category easily. Word-formation processes help us study English very easy and quick.

There are many kind of word-formation processes which used for creating new words. However, I want to introduce about Acronyms, blending and clipping. First of all, in the acronyms word-formation process, words created from the initial letters of several words. The difference between an initialism and an acronym is that an acronym can be pronounced as a single word instead of being spelled out by letter.  Examples in my field, the word “IT” = Information Technology, WYSIWYG = What You See Is What You Get. If you know this process, you can guess a meaning easily by remember the common sentence. We can improve our listening skill with applying this process. These words help you note quickly and you have more time to listen the audio records.

Secondly, I want to discuss about blending word-formation process, the process of creating new words by shortening parts of a longer word. Instance, the word “blog” (web + log) = a regularly updated website, typically one run by an individual or small group, that is written in an informal or conversational style – this is a BLOG. The another example, the word “bit” Binary and digit = bit. Her minicomputer has a 16-bit processor. In my major (IT), you may be get a lot of new words with blending word-formation process. In this way, we can improve our reading skill because there are many new words in specialized magazine, news which are created by this process. For example, you can search the key-word “blending word-formation in technology information” to learn many new vocabularies about IT with this process.

Finally, the clipping word-formation process of creating new words by shortening parts of a longer word. There are many new words which are created by this way in information technology field such as: app, ads, pic, etc. Application = app, advertises = Ads, Picture= pic. Because in specialized majors, words are very long and it is difficult to remember, so that people usually use the clipping words. This way helps us remember easily the vocabulary about our specialized major.

Conclusion, we have a lot of benefits to learn English thank to word-formation process. They help us to remember easily new vocabulary and extends to guess meaning of other words. In my opinion, the word-formation processes will help us learn English very well to improve all of skills as speaking, listening, reading and writing, especially is vocabulary.

Thanh-Nhan Huynh-Ly

Vocabulary about computing


Accumulator (n) BrE /əˈkjuːmjəleɪtə(r)/; NAmE /əˈkjuːmjəleɪtər/ =a section of a computer that is used for storing the results of what has been calculated

Addition (n) BrE /əˈdɪʃn/; NAmE /əˈdɪʃn/ = the process of adding two or more numbers together to find their total

Appropriate (a) BrE /əˈprəʊpriət/; NAmE /əˈproʊpriət/ = suitable, acceptable or correct for the particular circumstances

Arithmetic (n) BrE /əˈrɪθmətɪk/; NAmE /əˈrɪθmətɪk/ =the type of mathematics that deals with the adding, multiplying, etc. of numbers

Capability (n) BrE /ˌkeɪpəˈbɪləti/; NAmE /ˌkeɪpəˈbɪləti/ = capability (to do something/of doing something) the ability or qualities necessary to do something


Abacus (n) BrE /ˈæbəkəs/; NAmE /ˈæbəkəs/ =a frame with small balls which slide along wires. It is used as a tool or toy for counting.

Allocate (v) BrE /ˈæləkeɪt/; NAmE /ˈæləkeɪt/ =to give something officially to somebody/something for a particular purpose

Analog (n) BrE /ˈænəlɒɡ/; NAmE /ˈænəlɔːɡ/ = (of an electronic process) using a continuously changing range of physical quantities to measure or store data

Application (n) BrE /ˌæplɪˈkeɪʃn/; NAmE /ˌæplɪˈkeɪʃn/ = a formal (often written) request for something, such as a job, permission to do something or a place at a college or university

Binary (n) BrE /ˈbaɪnəri/NAmE /ˈbaɪnəri/ =a system of numbers that uses only 0 and 1


Ability (a) BrE /əˈbɪləti/ ; NAmE /əˈbɪləti/ = ability to do something the fact that somebody/something is able to do something

Access (v,n) BrE /ˈækses/; NAmE /ˈækses/ = a way of entering or reaching a place

Acoustic coupler BrE /əˈkuːstɪk/; NAmE /əˈkuːstɪk/ = related to sound or to the sense of hearing

Analyst (n) BrE /ˈænəlɪst/NAmE /ˈænəlɪst/ =a person whose job involves examining facts or materials in order to give an opinion on them

Centerpiece (n) BrE /ˈsentəpiːs/NAmE /ˈsentərpiːs/ =the most important item || a decoration for the centre of a table


Activity (n- uncountable) BrE /ækˈtɪvəti/; NAmE /ækˈtɪvəti/ =a situation in which something is happening or a lot of things are being done

Animation (n) BrE /ˌænɪˈmeɪʃn/; NAmE /ˌænɪˈmeɪʃn/ =the process of making films/movies, videos and computer games in which drawings or models of people and animals seem to move

Attach (v) BrE /əˈtætʃ/; NAmE /əˈtætʃ/ =to fasten or join one thing to another

Condition (n) BrE /kənˈdɪʃn/; NAmE /kənˈdɪʃn/ = the state that something is in

Coordinate (v) BrE /kəʊˈɔːdɪneɪt/; NAmE /koʊˈɔːrdɪneɪt/ = coordinate something to organize the different parts of an activity and the people involved in it so that it works well


Accommodate (v) BrE /əˈkɒmədeɪt/; NAmE /əˈkɑːmədeɪt/ =accommodate somebody to provide somebody with a room or place to sleep, live or sit. Accommodate somebody/something to provide enough space for somebody/something

Aspect (n-  countable) BrE /ˈæspekt/; NAmE /ˈæspekt/ = a particular part or feature of a situation, an idea, a problem, etc.; a way in which it may be considered

Accosicate (v) BrE /əˈsəʊsieɪt/; NAmE /əˈsoʊsieɪt/ = associate somebody/something (with somebody/something) to make a connection between people or things in your mind

Causal  (adj) BrE /ˈkɔːzl/; NAmE /ˈkɔːzl/ = connected with the relationship between two things, where one causes the other to happen.

Century (n) BrE /ˈsentʃəri/; NAmE /ˈsentʃəri/ =a period of 100 years

Chronological BrE /ˌkrɒnəˈlɒdʒɪkl/; NAmE /ˌkrɑːnəˈlɑːdʒɪkl/ = (of a number of events) arranged in the order in which they happened


Acceptable (adj) əkˈseptəb(ə)l =  agreed or approved of by most people in society

Accuracy (n) /ˈakyərəsē/ = state of being exact or correct; the ability to do something skilfully without making mistakes

Concentrate (v) BrE /ˈkɒnsntreɪt/; NAmE /ˈkɑːnsntreɪt/ = to give all your attention to something and not think about anything else

Economical (adj) BrE /ˌiːkəˈnɒmɪkl/ NAmE /ˌiːkəˈnɑːmɪkl/ = providing good service or value in relation to the amount of time or money spent

Financial (adj) BrE /faɪˈnænʃl/; NAmE /faɪˈnænʃl/ connected with money and finance

Objective (n) BrE /əbˈdʒektɪv/; NAmE /əbˈdʒektɪv/ = something that you are trying to achieve (synonym goal)

Pinpoint (v) BrE /ˈpɪnpɔɪnt/ NAmE /ˈpɪnpɔɪnt/ = pinpoint sth to find & show the exact position of somebody/something or the exact time that something happened

Precise (adj) BrE /prɪˈsaɪs/ NAmE /prɪˈsaɪs/ = clear and accurate

Relevant (adj) BrE /ˈreləvənt/; NAmE /ˈreləvənt/ = closely connected with the subject you are discussing or the situation you are thinking about

Responsible (adj) BrE /rɪˈspɒnsəbl/; NAmE /rɪˈspɑːnsəbl/ = having the job or duty of doing something or taking care of somebody/something, so that you may be blamed if something goes wrong

- Responsible (for doing something) Mike is responsible for designing the entire project.

- Responsible (for somebody/something) Even where parents no longer live together, they each continue to be responsible for their children.

Retrieve (v) BrE /rɪˈtriːv/; NAmE /rɪˈtriːv/ = (computing) to find and get back data or information that has been stored in the memory of a computing

- Retrieve something from somebody/something to retrieve information from the database

- Retrieve something The program allows you to retrieve items quickly by searching under a keyword.

Situation (n) BrE /ˌsɪtʃuˈeɪʃn/NAmE /ˌsɪtʃuˈeɪʃn/ = all the circumstances and things that are happening at a particular time and in a particular place

Sufficient (adj) BrE /səˈfɪʃnt/; NAmE /səˈfɪʃnt/ = enough for a particular purpose; as much as you need

Transaction (n) BrE /trænˈzækʃn/; NAmE /trænˈzækʃn/ = transaction of something (formal) the process of doing something; transaction (between A and B) a piece of business that is done between people, especially an act of buying or selling

Trend (n,v) BrE /trend/; NAmE /trend/ = a general direction in which a situation is changing or developing

----Tài liệu Tham khảo,

Bài Giảng ThS Lê Thị Hồng Hạnh, Tiếng Anh Chuyên Ngành CNTT - Học Viện Công Nghệ Bưu Chính Viễn Thông

Oxford Anvandced Learner's Dictionary


English for computing

I. Learning about 4 skills such as listening, speaking, reading, writing.

1. Listening

- Some tips

+ Common traps: (1) the answers that are changed. (2) using similar words rather than paraphrase.

+ Repeater answers with other ways.

+ Listen for plural

+ Technical / academic language is not alway paraphrase

+ Look for the title to guess.

+ Listen the example to given because a range of accents will be used.

+ Don't try to understand everything

+ Make notes and there may be  a grap between answers

2. Speaking

+ Learning vocabulary: first, looking for 5 words around you. Second, thinking about 3 verbs and 3 adjectives about each word. Third, Learning these word. Fourth, appling for your working or studying.

3. Reading

4. Writing

II. And some vocabulary about computing

III. The website for testing IELTS Online (useful).



Điện thoại là một invention quan trọng trong history technology, nó có thể sử dụng nhiều operating system different. Qua nhiều generation điện thoại đã integrate được nhiều chức năng mới với productivity ngày càng cao. Nó có nhiều application particular có thể command nó để figure out, schedule,.. Nó có kho storage lớn trong những con chip tiny. Vì vậy nó là một thiết bị dependable, multi-task, multi-user được devise để cho người dùng sử dụng một cách dễ dàng. Điện thoại similar một người bạn cần thiết trong cuộc sống.

Translate into English:

Throughout history of technology smartphone was an important invention. It can use many different operating systems. For many generation smartphone integrated many new function with increasing productivity. It has many particular application that user can command to figure out, schdule,… It has big storage with tiny chips. So it’s a dependable device, multi-task, multi-user is devised for user to easily. Smartphone is similar to a necessary friend in life.





Gia đình tôi có một cái (abacus), theo như ba mẹ kể lại thì nó được (predecessor) truyền lại. Công dụng chủ yếu của abacus là thực hiện (calculations), (particular), là giải các bài toán về số. Hiện nay, (technology) ngày càng phát triển, hầu như mọi người đều sử dụng (mainframe computer), nhưng khó có thể liên tưởng được (history) của nó lại là abacus. Mainframe computer có tính năng (multi-user), đặc biệt là (storage) được nhiều dữ liệu và (productivity) tốt hơn abacus. Nếu so sánh thì abacus lại quá (tiny) so với mainframe computer. (Similar) với abacus, để thực hiện (application) tính toán thì trước hết cần phải nhập dữ liệu vào; (different) với abacus là các dữ liệu được nhập vào mainframe computer sẽ được diễn tả theo (binary). Trải qua nhiều (generation) thì mainframe computer ngày nay có đặc tính là không thể (etch). Để mainframe computer đầu tiên được ra đời, nó cần (integrate) nhiều yếu tố, cho đến nay, nó đã phát triển đến generation thứ năm, generation điện tử, (transistor) thay vì (vacuum tube) của generation thứ nhất.


My family has an abacus, as reported by parents, it is passed on by predecessor. The main use of abacus is to perform calculations, in particular, to solve problems of numbers. At present, technology is growing, almost everyone uses a mainframe computer, but it is difficult to relate the history of it is abacus. Computers have multi-user features, especially storage that is more data and better productivity than desktops. In comparison, the calculator is so tiny compared to the mainframe computer. Similar to abacus, in order to implement computational application, it is necessary first to enter data; different with abacus is that the data entered into mainframe will be expressed in binary. Over many generations, mainframes today are characterized by being unable to etch. For the first major computer to be born, it needed to integrate many elements, so far, it has evolved to the fifth generation, electronic generation, transistor instead of the first generation vacuum tube.

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